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Advertising Research And Planning for Your Business: STEPS TO DEVELOPING THE ADVERTISING PLAN

This guide intends to show the basic thought process of creating an advertising plan and to help you find information in the library's databases.

Review the 5 P's of your marketing mix: product, price, place, people, promotion

  • Identify the strengths and weaknesses of each P
  • Identify the opportunities of and threats to the business, wherever they may exist. Then answer the following:
    • Is your business profitable?
    • If not, is there a problem that advertising might solve?
    • If yes, is there a positive situation that advertising must protect?   
  • What is competition doing? What opportunities can advertising further exploit?



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New searchSmall Business Reference Center -- Enter the phrase "SWOT ANALYSIS" in the search box and you will get a list of SWOT Analyses for  various businesses. Use the one that best describes your business.




Lilyquist, Mindy. “Example of a SWOT Analysis for Home Business.” The Balance Small Business,

Berry, Tim, et al. “How to Do a Swot Analysis for Better Strategic Planning.” Bplans Blog, 10 July 2020,

According to the American Marketing Association, an advertising objective is:

"A set forth specific goals to be accomplished and the time period in which they are to be accomplished."

 Some examples are:

  • To introduce something new: e.g. a new product,
  • a new brand, a new location, a new use for an existing product,  etc.
  • To increase brand awareness
  • To attract new customers
  • To encourage trial usage or purchase
  • To establish brand superiority
  • To encourage brand switching
  • To change consumer behavior or attitude
  • To announce something important
How to Create an Effective Advertising Strategy


  • Is there a problem advertising must solve?
  • Do you want to maintain the status quo (e.g. maintain market share dominance)?

Examples of historical case studies

1.GEICO (An example of how a market leader maintains top-of-mind awareness in consumers' minds)

Geico’s success as an insurance company has come from offering consumers independence and low prices, as well as rolling out effective advertising campaigns that highlight savings. Chief among the forces behind Geico’s success is the insurer's innovative and user-friendly initiatives. Geico’s advertising is on the light and funny side, standing out in contrast with competitors, netting them a significant portion of the market share of the U.S. insurance market.

Source: Investopedia. 2020. Geico's Marketing Strategy Through Advertisements. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 7 August 2020].


2. "NOBODY DOES IT LIKE SARA LEE" (An example of how a brand creates perception of product desirability to build consumer preference vs. competition)

Sara Lee had a problem it didn't think it had. And it didn't have the problem it thought it had. It's marketing professionals felt that Sara Lee was threatened by fresh-baked cakes and breads. They wanted their advertising to prove somehow that frozen was as good as fresh.Or maybe even better than fresh.

What Sara Lee did have was a superb line of frozen bake goods acknowledged by everyone to be the best in their business...for simply getting throught the trials of the day...

Source: Levenson, Bob. Bill Bernbach’s Book : A History of the Advertising the Changed the History of Advertising. New York, Villard Books, 1987. p. 143.



Setting Advertising ObjectivesBloomsbury Business Library - Actionlists & Checklists. January 2007:217. Accessed July 17, 2020.




What results do you want to achieve?

  • In specific terms, what do you want your target market to do after seeing your ad? For example, do you...
    • want them to try your product?
    • use your product more frequently?
    • use your product in many different ways?
    • know a new usage for your product?
    • prefer your product over competition?
    • switch from a competitor's product to yours?
    • know that your product is available in different colors, or flavors?
    • know that your product or service is available in more convenient locations?
    • be assured of your product's or service's superiority over competition?
  • Do you have a unique selling proposition? If so, what?
  • In other words, is there persuasive reason why your consumer should prefer your product or service to competition's?


Cicero's not-so-secret formula for persuasive talks | by ...



Some questions to ask about your consumer:

  • Who is using your product or service?
  • How many of them are there? Should you expand your consumer base?
  • Do you want them to use your product or service more frequently?
  • Who is your typical consumer?
  • What do you know about this person, in terms of:
    • attitudes
    • lifestyle
    • hobbies and interests
    • personal philosophy and values
    • media habits
    • income and educational level
    • age and marital status
    • other demographic and psychographic insights
    • physical, emotional, or psychological motivating factors for using your product or service

Additional ways of understanding the consumer:

  • interviews
  • surveys
  • focus groups
  • social media, such as FaceBook, Twitter, TikTok, etc.

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Elaboration likelihood model - Wikipedia



Encyclopedia of Business and FinanceBlock, Lauren G., et al. "Consumer Behavior." Encyclopedia of Business and Finance, 3rd ed., vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2014, pp. 142-149. Gale eBooks, Accessed 14 Sept. 2020.




Cover ArtThe Aisles Have Eyes, Joseph Turow 

ISBN: 9780300225075

Publication Date: 2017-01-17

Drawing on his interviews with retail executives, analysis of trade publications, and experiences at insider industry meetings, advertising and digital studies expert Joseph Turow pulls back the curtain on these trends, showing how a new hyper-competitive generation of merchants--including Macy's, Target, and Walmart--is already using data mining, in-store tracking, and predictive analytics to change the way we buy, undermine our privacy, and define our reputations. Eye-opening and timely, Turow's book is essential reading to understand the future of shopping.   "Turow shows shopping today to be an exercise in unwitting self-revelation--and not only online."--The Wall Street Journal   "Thoroughly researched and clearly presented with detailed evidence and fascinating peeks inside the retail industry. Much of this information is startling and even chilling, particularly when Turow shows how retail data-tracking can enable discrimination and societal stratification."--Publishers Weekly   "Revealing . . . Valuable reading for shoppers and retailers alike."--Kirkus Reviews

Cover ArtHedonism, Utilitarianism, and Consumer Behavior: Exploring the Consequences of Consumer Orientation

Daniele Scarpi
Cham : Palgrave Macmillan. 2020

This book investigates the effects of utilitarian and hedonic shopping behavior, drawing on original empirical research. Consumers have been shown to shop in one of two ways: they are either mainly driven by fun, escapism, and variety, or by need and efficiency. While previous literature has focused on the drivers of hedonic or utilitarian shopping, this book explores the consequences of these styles of shopping and addresses their impact on perceived value, money spent, and willingness to return to the store in future. The author synthesizes theories from previous studies, applying them to two key retailing contexts – intensive distribution and selective distribution. Ultimately, this book highlights the need for retailers to adopt a more consumer-based perspective to improve shopping experiences. It will prove useful for academics who want to gain a better understanding of hedonic and utilitarian behavior, and also offers practitioners with useful insights on how to target different customer segments.

Cover ArtWinning Her Business by Bridget Brennan 

ISBN: 1400209986

Publication Date: 2019-03-05

Bridget Brennan, CEO of Female Factor, shows readers how to win sales and grow market share by creating a customer experience that appeals to the most powerful consumers: women. 





INC.COM -- "How to Define Your Target Market"

The Marketing Toolbox -- "Why You’re Probably Getting Customer Personas Wrong"

Google Forms -- a free website that gives you the ability to conduct personal or business surveys online

ProProfs Survey Maker -- an easy-to-use online survey creator. Has either a free or fee-based option.





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What is an advertising budget?

"The budget is an expression of the expenditure plan. It is estimated to meet the fundefinedinancial requirements of advertising plans so that advertising objectives with planned strategies may be realised within a given time frame.

It is a statement of proposed advertising expenditure; a guideline for allocating the available funds to the various functions and activities of  advertising.

The nature of the advertising budget, advertising appropria­tion, allocating advertising budget and retail advertising budget are the main decision areas of the advertising budget."

From: Business Management Ideas 






Some budgeting methods to guide you:

  • TASK-OBJECT Method -- the cost of achieving specified objectives
  • PERCENT-OF-SALES Method -- the cost allotted to advertising based on total sales of the previous year
  • COMPETITIVE Methods -- cost is determined by what competition is spending or the competitive marketing situation

Source:  Advertising : Principles & Practice by William Wells, John Burnett, Sandra Moriarty




Choose the medium that:

  • has the most potential for helping you accomplish your advertising objective
  • best agrees with your budget
  • will help you reach the greatest number of your consumers for the lowest amount of money
  • can most efficiently and effectively connect you with your consumers



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Please note:  These are merely examples, and not intended, in any way, to recommend ad placement in these media.



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  • -- This database contains an amazing collection of industry forecasts and insights, consumers insights and preferences, industry insights and forecasts, key country and company reports, as well as worldwide statistics on a great number of major industries and markets. Also includes a tool to help you put together a numbers-rich business plan. It's almost a one-stop shop of information.

Statista is only available through specific computers in the Business Library, so please ask staff for assistance.



Cover ArtAdvertising Media Planning by Roger Baron; Jack Z. Sissors 

ISBN: 9780071738903

Now in its seventh edition, this book includes the newest developments in digitization and the three screens of video. Create the right budget for each campaign. Advertising Media Planning has proven essential to the success of both practicing and aspiring media planners. This book continues to provide valuable insight into the construction of media plans that most effectively achieve marketing objectives. Advertising Media Planning retains all the critical information you need to know about traditional media--including TV, radio, and print--while exploring the latest media forms, illustrated with major advertiser case histories. You'll find comprehensive coverage of the latest media planning and digital technologies, including: * Organic and sponsored Google search * Digital out-of-home video * Internet banners * Computerized media channel planning * Cell phone mobile-media * DVR's impact on TV commercial viewing * New online and traditional media measurement technologies * Interactive television * Cross-media planning * Data fusion * International competitive spending analysis. Those with the most creativity, strategic insight, and knowledge of the market are sure to find the greatest rewards.

Cover ArtBuilding Buzz by Marissa D'Vari 

ISBN: 1564147797

Publication Date: 2004-12-01

In today's cutthroat economic environment, professionals of every description must discover the secrets of elevating themselves above the competition. Building Buzz through free media is the most efficient and effective way to attract prospects, gain client loyalty, and develop an aura of prestige. Marisa D'Vari, one of the nation's leading expert strategists on media promotion, offers fresh insider secrets on how to establish credibility via media interviews. Filled with tips, checklists, summaries, and colorful success story anecdotes, Building Buzz shows you how to quickly achieve a certain celebrity status that will attract clients like a magnet. Even better, you will learn how to turn these interviews into a powerful credibility machine that works 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Expand your client list, enhance your credibility, and explode your profits with this dynamic, essential resource.



Entrepreneur: The Top Food Franchises of 2019 | Your PieENTREPRENEUR.COM - MEDIA PLANNING




Nielsen Launches Digital Ad Ratings Publisher Insights NIELSEN INSIGHTS 

What is digital advertising?

"Digital advertising is the process of publishing promotional material through online platforms such as social media, search engines, websites, and any other program that can be accessed digitally. Consumers are spending the majority of their time on the Internet, so digital advertising helps you take your business directly to where your audience is."

Source: “Defining What Is Digital Advertising and Why You Need It.” Digital Marketing Blog, 28 July 2020,

What are the advantages of digital advertising?

  • Bigger reach 
    • you can reach anyone who uses the internet
  • Cheaper 
    • you can post ads online and create campaigns, and they cost fractions of what 30 seconds on TV would
    • you also have social media, and it won’t even cost you a thing to create a page and start posting quality content on it
    • you can boost your posts by paying money, but if you choose, you don’t need to pay anything and you can still get good reach.
  • Tailored Targeting 
    • thanks to the massive data available you get to learn who your most interested demographics are, and you target them among all others
    • you find out who your loyal customers are, what they like, and more importantly, how to create content specifically for them so they could remain loyal and invested in your brand.
  • The Ability to Track Results 
    • Using web analytics and online tools, you get to learn what your campaigns did best and where they went wrong, and who liked them of your target audience and who didn’t.

What are the disadvantage of digital advertising?

  • It's not easy
    • digital marketing is complicated, and it’s a science that needs a lot of time to master
    • you have to understand such things as SEO, paid ads, pay per click ads, social media campaigns, websites, and more
    • you’ll need a very capable team to manage that
    • you’re going to have to invest in training them and honing their skill if you want them to truly be good at what they do.
  • Bigger competition
    • everyone is on the internet
  • You can't afford to slip
    • a big mistake can go viral in a few hours
  • Privacy problems​​​​
    • There are some who claim that platforms gathering data on users without their permission is both unethical and should be illegal. That is something you need to take into consideration.

    • Is it acceptable to collect information and data about users, and does this constitute a breach of their privacy?

Source: Smith, Emily. “Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital Media Advertising.” Aha!NOW, 20 Sept. 2019,



Cover ArtThe Psychology of Consumer Profiling in a Digital Age by Barrie Gunter 

ISBN: 9781138340749

Publication Date: 2018-08-07

Understanding how consumers choose between different products and services is a crucial part of professional marketing. Targeting brands at the consumers most likely to be interested in them is another critical aspect of business success. Marketers need to know what consumers think about brands, why they like them and what purposes they serve. This means delving into the psychology of the consumer to find ways of differentiating between consumers and matching brands to consumer niches at the level of consumers' relationships with brands. Using psychology to segment consumers has been regarded as a valuable adjunct to standard geo-demographic definitions of market segments. The Psychology and Consumer Profiling in a Digital Age examines how this field of 'psychographics' has evolved, the different approaches to psychological segmentation of consumers, the different ways in which it has been applied in consumer marketing settings, and whether psychographics works. It draws upon research from around the world and incorporates its analysis of the use of psychographics with an examination of major shifts in marketing in a digital and global era.



Cover ArtMaximize Your Social by Neal Schaffer 

ISBN: 1118756630

Publication Date: 2013-09-06

Create and maintain a successful social media strategy for your business Today, a large number of companies still don't have a strategic approach to social media. Others fail to calculate how effective they are at social media, one of the critical components of implementing any social media strategy. When companies start spending time and money on their social media efforts, they need to create an internal plan that everyone can understand. Maximize Your Social offers a clear vision of what businesses need to do to create--and execute upon--their social media for business road map. Explains the evolution of social media and the absolute necessity for creating a social media strategy Outlines preparation for, mechanics of, and maintenance of a successful social media strategy Author Neal Schaffer was named a Forbes Top 30 Social Media Power Influencer, is the creator of the AdAge Top 100 Global Marketing Blog, Windmill Networking, and a global social media speaker Maximize Your Social will guide you to mastery of social media marketing strategies, saving you from spending a chunk of your budget on a social media consultant. Follow Neal Schaffer's advice, and you'll be able to do it yourself--and do it right.

Cover ArtThe Rise of the Platform Marketer by Craig Dempster; John Lee 

ISBN: 1119059992

Publication Date: 2015-04-09

Develop the skills and capabilities quickly becoming essential in the new marketing paradigm The Rise of the Platform Marketer helps you leverage the "always-on" consumer to deliver more personalized engagements across media, channels, and devices. By managing these interactions at scale throughout the customer lifecycle, you can optimize the value of your customers and segments through strategic use of Connected CRM (cCRM). This book shows you how to take advantage of the massive growth and proliferation of social and other digital media, with clear strategy for developing the new capabilities, tools, metrics, and processes essential in the age of platform marketing. Coverage includes identity management, audience management, consumer privacy and compliance, media and channel optimization, measurement and attribution, experience design, and integrated technology, plus a discussion on how the company as a whole must evolve to keep pace with marketing's increasingly rapid evolution and capabilities. The expansion of digital platforms has created addressability opportunity through search, video, display, and social media, offering today's foremost opportunity for competitive advantage. This book outlines the capabilities and perspective required to reap the rewards, helping you shift your strategy to align with the demands and expectations of the modern consumer. Develop the tools, metrics, and processes necessary to engage the modern consumer Gain a deep understanding of Connected Customer Relationship Management Leverage trends in technology and analytics to create targeted messages Adjust your company's structure and operations to align with new capabilities The new era of marketing requires thorough understanding of cCRM, along with the knowledge and innovative forethought to thrive in the ever-expanding digital audience platform environment. The Rise of the Platform Marketer gives you an edge, and helps you clear a path to full implementation.

Cover ArtDigital Sense by Travis Wright; Brian Solis (Foreword by); Chris J. Snook 

ISBN: 1119291712

Publication Date: 2017-01-06

Compete in the digital world with pragmatic strategies for success Digital Sense provides a complete playbook for organizations seeking a more engaged customer experience strategy. By reorganizing sales and marketing to compete in today's digital-first, omni-channel environment, you gain newfound talent and knowledge from the resources already at hand. This book provides two pragmatic frameworks for implementing and customizing a new marketing operating system at any size organization, with step-by-step roadmaps for optimizing your customer experience to gain a competitive advantage. The Experience Marketing Framework and the Social Business Strategy Framework break down proven methods for exceeding the expectations customers form throughout the entirety of the buying journey. Customizable for any industry, sector, or scale, these frameworks can help your organization leap to the front of the line. The evolution of marketing and sales demands a revolution in business strategy, but realizing the irrelevance of traditional methods doesn't necessarily mean knowing what comes next. This book shows you how to compete in today's market, with real-world frameworks for implementation. Optimize competitive advantage and customer experience Map strategy back to business objectives Engage customers with a pragmatic, proven marketing system Reorganize sales and marketing to fill talent and knowledge gaps Today's customer is savvy, with more options than ever before. It's critical to meet them where they are, and engagement is the cornerstone of any cohesive, effective strategy. The technological revolution has opened many doors for marketing and sales, but the key is knowing what lies behind each one--what works for your competitor may not be right for you. Digital Sense cuts through the crosstalk and confusion to give you a solid strategy for success.




Digital Marketing Research and Planning For Your Business -- This guide is designed to help business persons understand the concept and practice of digital marketing and steer them in the right direction when applying it to their business.


As a form of communication, advertising creative materials consist of anything that can be read, watched, or heard.

They are words, visuals, and/or music.

To be effective, they should have these qualities:

  • persuasive call to action

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  • compelling visual appeal

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  • attention-grabbing message

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Examples of past TV commercials that were entertaining and effective:

"Mikey Likes It! -- In 1971, a commercial premiered which came to define not only a decade but an entire generation of finicky young eaters...This Life cereal commercial was such a success that it lasted almost fifteen years, and it's young star became a national hero. Mikey was a symbol of hope for kids everywhere.

SourceMcSweeney's Internet Tendency: Mikey: An Investigation,

"Fred the Baker" -- Fred was best known for his catchphrase "Time to make the donuts!",[3] and the commercial that introduced the phrase (which showed Fred rising well before dawn to begin making the donuts) was named one of the five best commercials of the 1980s by the Television Bureau of Advertising...Sometimes commercials would not be about Fred's work, but rather showing the inferiority of supermarket bakeries...

SourceFred the Baker. 1 Apr. 2020,




Winmo -- This database specializes in the advertising industry. It serves as a directory of advertisers, advertising agencies, media agencies, brands, as well as other allied companies in the advertising world. A new feature, the Creative Library, displays samples of creative materials by different brands and various products.



ADWEEK -- Covers the advertising industry and provides extensive information on a broad range of categories: news analyses on agencies, brand marketing, creativity, digital, and retail; covers awards and honors; offers webinars and podcasts.

AD AGE -- Advertising and marketing industry news that covers a broad range of industry topics that include digital media, agency and client news, and related data.

CLIO AWARDS -- Founded in 1959 to honor excellence in advertising, the Clio Awards today celebrates bold work that propels the advertising industry forward, inspires a competitive marketplace of ideas and fosters meaningful connections within the creative community.




Cover ArtHey, Whipple, Squeeze This by Luke Sullivan; Edward Boches (As told to) 

ISBN: 1119164028

Publication Date: 2016-01-19

The classic guide to creating great advertising now covers all media: Digital, Social, and Traditional Hey Whipple, Squeeze This has helped generations of young creatives make their mark in the field. From starting out and getting work, to building successful campaigns, you gain a real-world perspective on what it means to be great in a fast-moving, sometimes harsh industry. You'll learn how to tell brand stories and create brand experiences online and in traditional media outlets, and you'll learn more about the value of authenticity, simplicity, storytelling, and conflict. Advertising is in the midst of  a massive upheaval, and while creativity is still king, it's not nearly enough. This book is an essential resource for advertising professionals who need up-to-date digital skills to reach the modern consumer. Turn great ideas into successful campaigns Work effectively in all media channels Avoid the kill shots that will sink any campaign Protect your work Succeed without selling out Today's consumer has seen it all, and they're less likely than ever to even notice your masterpiece of art and copy, let alone internalize it. Your job is to craft a piece that rises out of the noise to make an impact. Hey Whipple, Squeeze This provides the knowledge to create impressive, compelling work.

Cover ArtBuilding a StoryBrand by Donald Miller 

ISBN: 0718033329

Publication Date: 2017-10-10

Seven proven elements of powerful stories that will dramatically improve the way you connect with your customers and drastically grow your business. Donald Miller's StoryBrand process is a proven solution to the struggle business leaders face when talking about their businesses. This revolutionary method for connecting with customers provides listeners with the ultimate competitive advantage, revealing the secret for helping their customers understand the compelling benefits of using their products, ideas, or services. Building a StoryBrand does this by teaching listeners the seven universal story points all humans respond to, the real reason customers make purchases, how to simplify a brand message so people understand it, and how to create the most effective messaging for websites, brochures, and social media. Whether you are the marketing director of a multibillion-dollar company, the owner of a small business, a politician running for office, or the lead singer of a rock band, Building a StoryBrand will forever transform the way you talk about who you are, what you do, and the unique value you bring to your customers. X

Cover ArtThe Big Book of Words That Sell by Robert W. Bly 

ISBN: 9781510741751

Publication Date: 2019-09-10

The language you need to sell and succeed, from America's top copywriter. Robert W. Bly is a self-made multi-millionaire and brings in six figures of sales annually from marketing and selling his own products, not to mention more than half a million from his freelance writing. He's been a professional copywriter for nearly forty years and has been named America's best copywriter. And now he's drawing back the curtain and revealing hundreds of proven words and phrases that can help you: Grab the reader's attention. Convey a sense of urgency. Communicate what's special, different, and unique about your product. Boost response with proven time-tested offers. Arouse the reader's curiosity. Overcome buyer objections. Announce something new. Move the reader emotionally. Create a perception of superior product value. Give the reader news. And much more. The Big Book of Words that Sell contains the 1200 words and phrases that have proven to sell most effectively for Bob, and the best situations to employ that language in. Use them to: Sell any product or service. Get connections, followers, and friends on social media. Write social media posts and ads that generate more clicks and conversions. Optimize web pages for Google and other search engines. Write e-mails that get higher open and click-through rates. Become a more powerful and persuasive copywriter. Increase web site traffic and conversion. Generate better return from your Call to Actions (CTA). The Big Book of Words that Sell: 1200 Words and Phrases That Every Salesperson and Marketer Should Know and Use is your guide to the world's most persuasive words and phrases--and how to leverage them to sell your product.

Cover ArtThe Advertising Solution by Craig Simpson; Brian Kurtz (As told to) 

ISBN: 9781599185965

Publication Date: 2016-10-11

Distilling the wisdom of the world's greatest advertisers, direct marketing expert Craig Simpson delivers an education on direct marketing and advertising copy that creates brand awareness, sells products, and keeps customers engaged. Walks readers through time-tested methods of creating effective ad copy that increases profits. Dissects the principles of legendary marketers like Robert Collier, Claude Hopkins, John Caples, and David Ogilvy.