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Understanding Music Division Classmarks: Billings Classification: Books

A guide to the various classification systems used in the Music Division

Books: *M through *ML

Classmarks beginning with *M through *ML generally contain writings about music. Their subdivisions are described below.

Remember:  Billing classification refers primarily to books and scores acquired before 1972.

*M through *MEC


Philosophy and aesthetics, importance, effects of music, sociology, music and poetry, music and other arts, psychology, testing, diseases and hygiene of musicians, etc.


Periodicals; entry under title


Periodicals issued by societies, including reports, proceedings, bulletins, etc.


Directories, address books, etc. (by place)


Catalogs of schools, conservatories, educational institutions, etc.


Programs (cataloged, generally bound); generally filed under the name of the venue or the name of the organization

*MBD (uncat.)

Programs (uncataloged, unbound); for a full inventory, see:


Radio program guides


General bibliographies of music


Music dealer catalogs (For more information see:


Composer catalogs


Instrument catalogs


Music library catalogs


Music publisher catalogs (For more information see:


Music dictionaries and encyclopedias


Collective biographies of musicians


Biographies of individuals involved with music

*MEC (name)-C

Catalogs of works

*MEC (Beethoven)-CC

Works about Beethoven's string quartets [The suffix -CC applies only to Beethoven]

*MEC (Beethoven)-CO

Works about Beethoven's symphonies [The suffix -CO applies only to Beethoven]

*MEC (Beethoven)-CP

Works about Beethoven's piano sonatas [The suffix -CP applies only to Beethoven]

*MEC (Beethoven)-CV

Works about Beethoven's vocal music [The suffix -CV applies only to Beethoven]

*MEC (Beethoven)-CZ

Compositional studies of Beethoven [The suffix -CZ applies only to Beethoven]

*MEC (name)-L

Published collections of letters.  

*MEC (name)-M

Writings other than letters

*MEC (name)-Z

Fictional works

*MF through *MG (History and miscellaneous subjects)


General history of music


Charts, chronologies, outlines, question-and-answer books, syllabi, pictorial histories


History: Ancient to 400 AD


History: Medieval through approximately 6th century


History: approximately 16th through approximately 18th century


History: approximately 18th through 19th century


History: 19th century


History: 19th through 20th century


History: 20th century


History: Primitive and exotic music; general works


History: Regional history (by place)


Dramatic music




Folk music - general


Folk music - regional


Sacred music - general


Roman Catholic - general


Roman Catholic forms, for example: Mass, Hymns


Other Catholic churches


Protestant - General


Protestant forms, for example: Mass, Hymns




Other churches


Non-demonimational forms - oratorios, stories of hymns, etc.


Secular music, vocal: general


Secular music, vocal: regional


Instrumental music: general


Instrumental music: regional




Notation and neumes


Printing and publishing: general


Printing and publishing: regional


Education: general


Education: regional


Societes and organizations: general


Societes and organizations: regional, individual


Historiography, paleography


Music in art and mythology


Collected literary works


Essays, Festschriften of miscellaneous content


Appreciation and analysis: general


Music as a profession


Copyright and performance rights




Anecdotes, quotations, games


Opera stories

*MGO—*MGZ is now part of the Dance Division

*MH through *MI: Theory and instruction


Theory and instruction: general


Special topics


Elementary methods, grammars, manuals




Tonic sol-fa


Mathematical and physical aspects








Peformance and interpretation




Song writing and publishing


Motion pictures

*MK: About musical instruments


General instruments




Organ construction


About organ music


Organ instruction




Band instrument making and makers


Band instruction


Keyboard instruments - general




Pianists and piano composers


Piano making and piano makers


About piano music


Piano instruction




Harmonium making and makers


About harmonium music


Harmonium instruction




Harpsichord making and makers


About harpsichord music


Harpsichord instruction


Other keyboard instruments (virginals, claivchord, spinet, etc.)


String instruments: General


String instruments making and makers


Violin and violin family


Violinists and violin composers


Violin making and makers


About violin music


Violin instruction




About violoncello music


Violoncello instruction




About viola music


Viola instruction


Double bass


Double bass instruction


Other string instruments (musical bow, vielle, tromba marina, etc.)


Viola d'amore


Viola d'amore instruction


Viola da gamba


Viola da gamba instruction


Plucked instruments: General




Banjo instruction


Guitar and instrument of the guiar


Guitar instruction




About harp music


Harp instruction




Lute instruction




Mandolin instruction




Ukelele instruction




Zither instruction


Wind instruments, general




Flute making and makers


About flute music


Flute instruction




Oboe instruction




About clarinet music


Clarinet instruction




Bassoon instruction




Horn instruction


Trumpet and Cornet


Trumpet and Cornet instruction




Saxophone instruction




Bagpipe instruction




Accordion instruction


Other aerophonic instruments (harmonica, ocarina, etc.)


Other aerophonic instruments - instruction




Drum instruction


Triangle, xylophone


Triangle, xylophone - instruction


Bells and carillon


Bells and carillon - bell founding and founders


Bells ringing - instruction


Mechanical instruments


Mechanical instruments construction


About mechanical instrument music


Mechanical instruments instruction

*ML: Voice instruction


Includes anatomy, hygiene, physiology, voice-building


Singing (includes methods and history)