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Understanding Music Division Classmarks: Billings Classification: Scores

A guide to the various classification systems used in the Music Division

Scores: *MM through *MYZ

Classmarks beginning with *MM through *MYZ contain musical scores. Their subdivisions are described below.

Classmarks with *MZ are librettos.

Remember:  Billing classification refers primarily to books and scores acquired before 1972.

*MM-*MN: Collections




Collections of music, monument sets, etc.


Collected works of individual composers


Typescripts and manuscripts of books


Letters of musicians


Partial facsimiles of letters of musicians


Music manuscripts and music manuscript facsimiles


Partial facsimiles of music manuscripts

*MO-*MR: Vocal music

*MO (by language)

National music (primarly vocal)


*MP (by language)

General vocal music, secular



Songsters and song texts 



Campaign songsters 



Temperance songsters 



Sacred solo songs and miscellaneous vocal collections






Liturgical music


Jewish music without accompaniment


Jewish music with accompaniment


Non-liturgical music without accompaniment (includes anthems, cantatas, motets, oratorios, etc.)


Non-liturgical music with accompaniment

*MS Dramatic music

Includes operas, ballets, incidental music, film music, etc.


Dramatic music - vocal scores and scores without accompaniment


Dramatic music - full scores


Dramatic music - piano solo scores

*MT - Orchestral music


Symphonic poems, symphonies


Entr'actes, overtures, suites, variations, etc.


Dances, marches


Miscellaneous: Fantasies, orchestra concertos, rhapsodies, serenades, etc.


Special orchestras and bands: brass, janissary, military, string, Turkish, etc.

*MVM (by place)

Field music. Fife and drum music


Reduced orchestra and band


Solo instrument(s) with orchestra

*MX-MZ: Chamber music and solo music (with or without accompanying instruments) and librettos


Chamber music (three or more instruments in combination)


Organ music


Music for harmonium, seraphine, physharmonica, etc.


Piano music


Harpsichord and harpsichord family


Harp music


Violin music


Violoncello music


Viola music


Double bass and other bowed instrument music


Lute, mandolin, zither, guitar, banjo etc. music


Wind instrument music


Percussion music


Bell music


Automatic instrument music: Hand organ, music boxes, aeolinas, etc.


Other instrumental music: Phonograph, radio, electric instruments